JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE

Past empirical studies show that marketing undergraduates, in general, perform poorly in quantitativebased

activities. However, numerical skills involving solving and analyzing numerical information is a

skill set in high demand among business organizations. Unfortunately, students continue to struggle with

high levels of math anxiety affecting their math self-concept and math self-efficacy. Structural equation

model analysis is used to examine relationships among the constructs. Results confirm that math anxiety

has a significant negative impact on both math self-concept and math self-efficacy, which in turn has

positive impacts on math performance. Math self-concept and math self-efficacy also provide effective

mediations to students’ math performances. To impact the longitudinal implications of quantitative

literacy for marketing majors, a more holistic view is needed that simultaneously addresses approaches

that reduce math anxiety, increase math self-concept, increase math self-efficacy, and result in greater

levels of math performance.